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So, what is Congress’s “advice and consent” role in presidential appointments?  This is what the Constitution says:   


Article 1 Section 2  The President shall . . . have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, . . . shall nominate, and, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law; but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

Number 72 [paragraph 1]


"In its largest sense, the administration of government includes all government operations.  But in its most precise definition, it is limited to executive duties.

"Government administration includes conducting foreign negotiations, preparing financial plans, asking for and spending public money as appropriated by the legislature, directing the army, navy and operations of war, and other similar duties.  Therefore, the people who manage these areas should be considered assistants or deputies of the chief executive.  The President should appoint them or, at least, nominate and supervise them.  This suggests the close connection between the President’s term in office and a stable administration.

"To prove his worth, a new office-holder often reverses his predecessor’s actions.  When the change is because of an election, the new person can assume that his predecessor lost the election because people disliked his measures.  And the less he acts like his predecessor, the more his constituents will like him.  For these reasons and the influence of friends, every new President will probably change the men filling offices…"

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