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Outline of all 85 Federalist Papers

     Introduction to Federalist Papers

           1      Call to Study New Constitution     


Government’s Responsibilities

     Dangers Facing the United States: Foreign

           2   United America                                                                   

           3   Union Provides Safety Against Foreign Danger          

           4   Strong Union Provides Strong Defense                        

           5   Greatest Threat to Confederacies: Each Other


     Dangers Facing the United States: Domestic

           6   Hostilities Between Separated States                            

           7   Reasons for Wars Between Disunited States                               

           8   Disunited States Threat to Each Other                           

           9   Constitution: “Confederate Republic” Form                  

          10  Large Republic: Controls of Effects of Faction             

     Advantages of Staying United

           11  Benefits of Strong Union to Commerce

           12  Union Promotes Revenue                                                

           13  One National Government Cheaper than Several      


     Summary of Issues Covered

          14  Republic: Best for American People      


Problems in Current American Confederacy


     No Federal Authority Over Individual Citizens

          15  Confederation Near Total Collapse                               

          16  Legislation for States; Civil Way Inevitable   

          17  Authority Over Individual Citizens                   

     Weaknesses in Other Confederacies

          18  Weaknesses Doomed Ancient Greek Confederacies

          19  Current Confederacies: German, Polish, Swiss          

          20  United Netherlands: Failure of Legislation for States 

     Problems in Articles of Confederation

          21  Defects of United States Articles of Confederation     

          22  Defects in Articles of Confederation    


Power Needed to Fulfill Responsibilities


     Defense: Foreign

          23  Federal Responsibilities, Powers, Organization          

          24  Standing Armies During Times of Peace                      

          25  Defense: Federal, Not State, Responsibility 

          26  Legislative Military Authority                                            

     Defense: Domestic

          27  Federal Authority Over Individual Citizens    

          28  National/State Resources Counter Threats                   

          29  Militia Not Threat to Liberty                                                               


          30  Taxation: Revenue for National Government               

          31  Federal Taxation Won’t Usurp State Powers                

          32  Union Tax Doesn’t Limit State Authority                        

          33  Necessary and Proper/Supreme Law of the Land      

          34  Union, States Concurrent Taxation Jurisdiction           

          35  Representatives Understand Effects of Tax Policy     

          36  Internal Taxation by Federal Government      


Drafting Constitution


     Constitutional Convention

          37  Difficulties Faced by Constitutional Convention

          38  Ancient Republics Structured by Individuals                 

          39  National vs. Federal Republic                          

          40  Was Convention Authorized to Draft Constitution?     

     Federal Powers

          41  Constitutionally Vested Federal Powers                        

          42  2.  Regulate International Relationships                        

                 3.  Provide Harmony, Relationships Among States

          43  4.  Miscellaneous Federal Powers                                  

          44  5.  Provisions Restricting State Authority       

                6.  Provisions Giving Efficacy to All the Rest 

     State Powers

          45  Federal Powers Not Dangerous to States                     

          46  Federal vs. State Government Authority                        

     “Separation of Powers” Within Government

          47  Separation of Legislative, Executive, Judicial Powers               

          48  Separation of Government’s Powers, continued         

          49  Jefferson: Constitution Convention to Correct Power 

          50  Periodic Conventions to Correct Infractions                 

          51  Separation of Powers: Checks and Balances  


Structure of Proposed Government

     Legislative: House of Representatives

          52  Representatives: Candidates, Elections, Term

          53  Biennial Elections Safe, Promote Quality     

          54  Representatives/ Direct Taxes: Same Rule   

          55  Total Number in House of Representatives  

          56  Opposition: Too Few Representatives           

          57  Charge: Representatives from “Upper Class”                              

          58  Number of Representatives Will Grow                           

     Legislative: Congress

          59  Congress Can Regulate Federal Elections                   

          60  Dangers of Union Regulating Its Own Elections          

          61  Regulation of Federal Congressional Elections

     Legislative: Senate

          62  Senators: Qualifications, Reasons Necessary

          63  IV. (continued) Number Senators, 6-Year Term

          64  President, with Senate, Makes Treaties         

          65  Senate as Court for Trial of Impeachments  

          66  Objections to Senate as Impeachment Court               


          67  Deceptive Arguments Against Proposed Executive

          68  Method of Electing President           

          69  President’s Constitutional Authority

          70  One Person Holds Executive Authority

          71  Duration: President’s Term in Office              

          72  Presidential Term Limits                   

          73  Executive Salary; Executive Powers, Veto    

          74  Commander-in-Chief, Reprieves, Pardons  

          75  President, with Senate Approval, Makes Treaties       

          76  President, with Senate, Makes Appointments              

          77  Executive Appoints Administration Officers  


          78  Federal Judiciary: Term: Good Behavior       

          79  Judiciary: Independence, Salary, Impeachment

          80  Extent of Federal Judicial Authority                                

          81  Authorities of Supreme, Inferior Federal Courts          

          82  Federal-State Judiciary                                                     

          83  Trial by Jury             



          84  Bill of Rights; Capital; Debts due Union; Expenses

          85  In Conclusion, Ratify Now, Amend Later      



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